Size at birth, growth rate, age at sexual maturity,
number and size of offspring, and longevity are among the
variables studied in life history evolution, a mid-level branch
of evolutionary biology. Long-lived, slow maturing, and highly
encephalized Homo sapiens, though skewed as a group
towards the very slow end of the spectrum, nevertheless show
some life history variation; variation which may relate to, and
to some extent explain, personality variation. When applied to
extant personality disorders, the risk-taking, boldness, and impulsivity
of psychopathy is explained as a fast life history
strategy. Herein, it is argued that the highly heritable
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), opposite
psychopathy, is a slow life history strategy. Both OCPD and
slow life history strategists exhibit anxiety and harm avoidance,
risk and loss aversion, future-oriented thought and time
urgency, delayed gratification, and conscientious labor and
fidelity. In addition to a host of compelling correlations, the
preponderance of intrinsic over extrinsic mortality that explains
the evolution of slow life histories is precisely that
which has been described in an ecological etiology that explains
OCPD as a product of post-migration evolution from
Africa into Eurasia.
[z.B. Kants Auffassung der Welt: "Alles in der Natur, sowohl in der leblosen als auch in der belebten Welt, geschieht nach Regeln, ob wir gleich diese Regeln nicht immer kennen. - Das Wasser fällt nach Gesetzen der Schwere, und bei den Thieren geschieht die Bewegung des Gehens auch nach Regeln. Der Fisch im Wasser, der Vogel in der Luft bewegt sich nach Regeln. Die ganze Natur überhaupt ist eigentlich nichts anders als ein Zusammenhang von Erscheinungen nach Regeln; und es giebt überall keine Regellosigkeit. Wenn wir eine solche zu finden meinen, so können wir in diesem Falle nur sagen: daß uns die Regeln unbekannt sind."]
Some have asserted that conservatives are less well disposed toward science.
It has been claimed that they are inflexible, dogmatic and intolerant.
Different sub-dimensions of political orientation can be separated.
We distinguish between three definitions of ‘conservative’.
Economic conservatives are as or more literate and optimistic about science.
It is frequently asserted that conservatives exhibit a cognitive style that renders them less well disposed toward science than progressives, and that they are correspondingly less trusting of scientific institutions and less knowledgeable about scientific ideas. Here we scrutinize these assertions, using data from the U.S. General Social Survey. We distinguish between three different definitions of ‘conservative’: first, identifying as conservative, rather than as liberal; second, holding socially conservative views, rather than socially progressive views; and third, holding economically conservative views, rather than economically leftist views. We find that self-identified conservatives and social conservatives are less scientifically literate and optimistic about science than, respectively, self-identified liberals and social progressives. However, we find that economic conservatives are as or more scientifically literate and optimistic about science than economic leftists. Our results highlight the importance of separating different sub-dimensions of political orientation when studying the relationships between political beliefs, scientific literacy and optimism about science.
>During the three years which I spent at Cambridge my time was wasted, as far as the academical studies were concerned, as completely as at Edinburgh and at school. I attempted mathematics, and even went during the summer of 1828 with a private tutor (a very dull man) to Barmouth, but I got on very slowly. The work was repugnant to me, chiefly from my not being able to see any meaning in the early steps in algebra. This impatience was very foolish, and in after years I have deeply regretted that I did not proceed far enough at least to understand something of the great leading principles of mathematics, for men thus endowed seem to have an extra sense. But I do not believe that I should ever have succeeded beyond a very low grade.<
(A) die Geschwindigkeit im Urteilen
[Denkgeschwindigkeit versus Fehleranfälligkeit des Denkens; Die wissenschaftliche Methode an sich ist kritisch. Es geht in der Wissenschaft nicht primär darum, schnell Gedankengebäude zu errichten. Ein wichtigeres Ziel ist es, zu sicheren Aussagen über einen Gegenstand zu gelangen. Nur sichere Fundamente sind tragfähig.]
>Sammy Davis Jr once said that he thought boredom was a great help to creativity, because when you start getting bored without constant external stimulation, that's when stuff starts coming up from the inside, which is really what creativity is about.<